Radiology Terminology

Deciphering Radiology One Term at a Time

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are 20 names in this directory beginning with the letter G.
gamma camera
A camera that records the distribution of radiation emitted from a chemical containing a radionuclide that is attracted to a specific organ or tissue of interest.
gamma radiation
(Also called gamma rays.) A very high frequency form of electromagnetic radiation that consists of photons emitted by radioactive elements. Gamma rays can injure and destroy body cells and tissue, especially cell nuclei.
gangrene
Necrosis (death of one or more cells, or of a portion of tissue or organ) due to obstruction, loss, or diminution of blood supply; it may be localized to a small area or involve an entire extremity or organ (such as the bowel), and may be wet or dry.
gastroesophageal junction
The point at which the esophagus and the stomach join.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
A condition in which stomach acid leaks into the esophagus. Heartburn is the most common symptom. Left untreated, the disease can cause changes to the tissue lining the esophagus and increase the risk of esophageal cancer.
gastrointestinal (GI)
Relating to the stomach and intestines.
gastropathy
A disease or any condition that affects the stomach.
gastrostomy
Establishment of a new opening into the stomach.
gating
The use of an electronic signal from the pumping of the heart to obtain images of heart contractions.
gene therapy
Treatment based on alteration of genetic material.
genetic marker
A specific gene or other identifiable portion of DNA that can be used to identify an individual disease or trait.
genetically engineered tumor vaccines
A DNA molecule that is broken into fragments and then rearranged to create an altered microorganism that when administered, induces immunity.
gland
A group of cells that secrete a substance needed by the body.
glial cells
The most abundant cell type in the central nervous system; glial cells surround and support neurons.
goiter
An enlarged thyroid gland, usually evident as a pronounced swelling in the neck.
graft
1. Any free (unattached) tissue or organ for transplantation. 2. To transplant an organ or unattached tissue. 3. An artificial blood vessel connection used to facilitate kidney dialysis.
Graves' disease
A condition, also called hyperthyroidism, in which the thyroid gland produces more thyroid hormone than the body needs. Symptoms include an enlarged thyroid gland, rapid heart rate, and high blood pressure.
gray (Gy)
A unit of absorbed radiation equal to the dose of one joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of matter, or 100 rad. The unit is named for the British physician L. Harold Gray (1905-1965), an authority on the use of radiation in the treatment of cancer.
great saphenous vein
The longest vein in the body extending from the foot up the inner thigh to the groin.
gynecologist
A physician who specializes in functions and conditions of the female reproductive system.