Radiology Terminology

Deciphering Radiology One Term at a Time

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are 41 names in this directory beginning with the letter I.
ibuprofen
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) available over-the-counter.
ileostomy
A surgical procedure to attach the ileum (a portion of the small intestine) to an opening made in the abdomen.
ileum
The third portion of the small intestine.
image-guided biopsy
The use of imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, CT, x-ray or MRI, to assist in targeting a lesion too small to be felt so that cells can be removed from the suspicious area and examined under a microscope to determine whether the abnormality is cancerous.
immunotherapy
1. The practice of giving small amounts of an allergy-producing substance in order to stimulate the formation of antibody that will neutralize it. 2. Use of the body's immune system to fight tumors.
impaction
1. A tooth compressed between the jaw and another tooth that fails to fully erupt through the surface of the gums. 2. An immobile mass of stool that does not easily pass from the rectum.
implanted port
A quarter-sized disk that is placed either surgically or by an interventional radiologist just beneath the skin in the chest or abdomen. The disk is connected to a catheter that is inserted into a large vein. Fluids, drugs, or blood products can be infused or blood drawn through a needle that is inserted into the disk through the skin. Examples of manufacturer's names: Port-o-cath, Infusaport, Lifeport.
impotence
Inability of the male to maintain erection and engage in sexual intercourse.
in situ breast cancer
The early stage of cancer when it is confined to the ducts of the breast where it began and has not invaded the surrounding fatty tissues.
incentive spirometer
A breathing apparatus that helps patients inflate their lungs and exercise breathing muscles to prevent the onset of pneumonia following surgery.
incisional biopsy
A type of surgical biopsy in which part of a lesion or abnormal group of cells is removed.
incontinence
Inability to prevent the discharge of urine or feces.
indolent
Slow to develop or progress.
infarction
The death of tissue in the body caused by an obstruction in the tissue's blood supply, a lack of oxygen or both factors.
inferior vena cava
The large vein that returns blood from the legs and abdomen to the heart.
Infiltrate
Infiltrate, most commonly refered to as pulmonary infiltrate : “an abnormal substance that accumulates gradually within cells or body tissues” or “any substance or type of cell that occurs within or spreads as through the interstices (interstitium and/or alveoli) of the lung, that is foreign to the lung, or that accumulates in greater than normal quantity within it”
inflammation
The protective response of body tissues to irritation or injury. Signs include redness, heat, swelling and pain.
infusion
Introduction of a fluid, nutrient, or medication directly into a vein by means of gravity flow.
institutional review board (IRB)
A review body established to protect the welfare of human participants recruited for biomedical research.
internal jugular vein
One of a pair of neck veins that collect blood from the brain and face and convey it toward the heart.
internist
A physician specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the internal organs.
interstitial lung disease
A respiratory disorder causing shortness of breath on effort. In time the lung tissue may become severely scarred. While some patients recover, others develop respiratory failure or heart failure.
interstitium
The scaffolding of the lung that supports the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in the lung.
intestinal obstruction
Partial or total blockage of movement of food or stool through the intestines.
intracranial
Within the skull.
intracranial aneurysm
A ballooning out of the wall of an artery inside the brain; it may lead the vessel to rupture and bleed heavily.
intraoperative
During surgery.
intraoperative radiation therapy
Radiation treatment of cancer or other diseases done during surgery.
intraoral
Within the mouth.
intraosseous
Situated within, occurring within, or administered by entering a bone.
intrauterine
Within the uterus.
intravenous ('inside a vein')
Frequently a needle will be placed in a vein, often a large arm vein, to deliver fluids and medications, withdraw blood samples, and transfuse blood.
intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)
Bleeding into the ventricles within the brain.
invasive
An invasive procedure is typically an "open" operation, such as appendectomy, which requires a surgical incision for exposure of deep structures or organs for performance of an intervention.
invasive breast cancer
Cancer that has spread beyond the layer of tissue in which it first developed and is growing into surrounding, healthy tissues.
iodine
A non-metallic element found in table salt, seawater and in plants and animals that grow in the sea. The human body requires small amounts of iodine for healthy growth and development. This element is present in many radiographic contrast materials.
ionizing radiation
Radiation of sufficient energy to dissociate atoms or molecules into electrically charged atoms or radicals in the irradiated material.
irradiation
1. The subjective enlargement of a bright object seen against a dark background. 2. Exposure to the action of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., heat, light, x-rays).
irritable bowel syndrome
Characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel function - alternating bouts of constipation and diarrhea.
ischemia
An inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body.
isotope
One of two or more nuclides that are chemically identical, having the same number of protons, yet differ in mass number, since their nuclei contain different numbers of neutrons; individual isotopes are named with the inclusion of their mass number in the superior position (12C) and the atomic number (nuclear protons) in the inferior position (6C). In former usage, the mass numbers follow the chemical symbol (C-12).